Lesson 1 Review

Vowel Pronunciation IPA
  a "ah" as in 'fall' /a/
  e "eh" as in 'bed' /e/
  i "ee" as in 'ski' /i/
  o "oh" as in "so" /o/
  u "oo" as in 'dune /u/

e is not ey, o is not ow, i is not iy, u is not uw

The kahakō/macron is a line above a vowel that means you should extend that vowel's spoken duration.

Long Vowel Pronunciation IPA
  ā "ahh" as in 'father' /aː/
  ē "ehh;" never "ayy" as in 'play' /eː/
  ī "eee" (line replaces dot) /iː/
  ō "ohh" /oː/
  ū "ooo" /uː/

Consonant Pronunciation IPA
  l, m, n Same as English more or less /l, m, n/
  h same as English but sometimes stronger /h/
  k, p less aspirated /p, k/
  w like a W after o or u,
like a V after e or i,
otherwise variable
/w/ [w, v]
   ‘okina/glottal stop as the break in 'uh-oh' /ʔ/

Alphabet

A-U = + long vowel
Ā-Ū = + long vowel +
H-L, W = consonant + ‘ē
M-N = consonant + ‘u
P =
= ‘okina

ma‘aka (uppercase), na‘ina‘i (lowercase), hua‘ōlelo hou (new word)

Syllabification

   1.   V: Vowel, Long Vowel or Diphthong
   2.   CV: Consonant + Vowel, Long Vowel or Diphthong

Diphthong Pronunciation IPA
  ae "ah" + "eh" (no English equivalent) /ae/
  ai similar to the word 'eye' /ai/
  ao "ah" + "oh" (No English equivalent) /ao/
  au similar to the exclamation 'ow!' /au/
  ei as in 'eight' /ei/
  eu eh" + "oo" (no English equivalent) /eu/
  oi similar to the "oy" in 'boy' /oi/
  ou similar to the word 'owe' /ou/

Reading

Never:

   •   change the sound of any letters
   •   add any letters
   •   ignore any letters

Stress

Hawaiian Stress Rule: Stress the second-to-last vowel of every stress group.

For words under four syllables, apply the Hawaiian Stress Rule: to:

1. Long vowels
2. Diphthongs
3. All words consisting of 2-3 syllables, none of which is a long vowel or diphthong
4. All sections of a word consisting of 2 syllables, none of which is a long vowel or diphthong

The last stressed vowel in a word is the loudest.

Common Words and Phrases:

Aloha! (Hello/Goodbye), welina (salutations), Aloha wau iā ‘oe. (I love you.), (e komo) mai (welcome), Pehea ‘oe? (How are you?), Maika‘i au. (I am well.), Hau‘oli au. (I am happy.), Kaumaha au. (I am sad/depressed.), MĂluhiluhi au. (I am tired.), Ma‘i au. (I am ill.), oia mau ([I feel] same as always), (e) kala mai (excuse me/sorry), kala mai ia‘u (excluse me/sorry), Auē! (Gosh!), Ano ‘ē! (Weird!/How strange!), (e) ‘olu‘ole (‘oe) (please), ‘olu‘olu mai (please), mahalo (thanks), ‘a‘ole pilikia (not a problem), ‘a‘ohe pilikia (no problem), ā hui hou (until we meet again)

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Last Updated: 06/10/2010